Antibiotics use and resistance. Information on Antibiotics
Antibiotics used in the treatment of gastritis
Gastritis develops as a result of exposure to the body, more precisely to the gastric mucosa of negative factors:
- Poor-quality food;
- Medicinal preparations;
- Pathogenic bacteria.
As a rule, infectious gastritis is caused by the Helicobacter pylori bacterium, which gets into the patient's body with poor-quality food. In most cases, the only way to kill the Helicobacter bacteria is antibiotic therapy.
The patient should understand that antibiotics are not a panacea for all diseases and that drugs of this group can be taken only in certain cases. For example, gastritis, which is not provoked by the Helicobacter bacterium, but other reasons do not make sense to treat with antibiotics. Moreover, such therapy can only aggravate the condition of the mucous membrane of the organ and strengthen the gastritis clinic.
Antibiotics for gastritis are selected only by a gastroenterologist, based on the results of the study and confirmation of the presence of helicobacter pylori in the body.
What antibiotics are effective for gastritis?
As a rule, the main drugs for treating gastritis can be divided into several groups:
• Clarithromycin (Biaxin) and other analogues
• Omeprazole (Prilosec) and others
• Amoxicillin (Amoxil) and others
To achieve maximum therapeutic effect, antibiotics in the treatment of gastritis are combined with the drug Metronidazole (Flagyl ER).
• Metronidazole (Flagyl ER)
Thus, the patient succeeds in completely destroying the Helicobacter bacterium.
Many patients are puzzled, why should you take antibiotics at once 2 groups?
The thing is that the bacterium, caused by gastritis, quickly gets used to antibacterial drugs and becomes resistant to treatment. That's why gastroenterologists recommend combining the selected antibiotic with metronidazole to achieve the best results.
The dosage of the drug and the duration of the course of therapy are prescribed by a gastroenterologist, depending on the patient's body weight, age, general condition and the presence of concomitant diseases of the digestive canal. Of course, the drug is selected taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient's body.
It is important to understand that it is impossible to stop antibiotic treatment on its own, despite improvements in the condition. It is necessary to drink the entire course, which was indicated by the doctor, otherwise the disease will pass into a chronic form and then it will be necessary to select a new, stronger medicine.
Disadvantages of antibiotic therapy
The main disadvantage of using antibiotics for gastritis is a high probability of developing side effects and allergic reactions. In many patients, when taking antibiotics, there are disorders of stool, nausea, and abdominal pain. The thing is that the drugs of this group destroy not only pathogenic microorganisms, but also all useful intestinal microflora.
To fill the deficit of lacto and bifidobacteria after antibiotic therapy, gastroenterologists prescribe to patients probiotics preparations - capsules of yogurt, linex, bifi-forms or other analogues. In addition, during the period of antibiotic treatment, the patient is recommended to include dairy products in the diet to prevent the development of dysbacteriosis.
Side effects often occur when the patient independently increases the dose of the medicine, hoping, thus, to get rid of gastritis more likely. Remember that such experiments can lead to very sad consequences, up to hepatic insufficiency and coma!
Antibiotics in pregnancy guidelines
Pregnancy is the period when a woman watches her health doubly and tries to always lead a healthy lifestyle. But often it is during pregnancy that a woman starts to get sick often, and it is during this period that all chronic diseases become aggravated. No wonder, the immune system of a pregnant woman is in a depressed state.
This happens for the successful carrying of the fetus, which has a father's genetic material that is foreign to the mother. And all future mothers know that taking medicines involves some risks.
What kind of risks can the antibiotic use during pregnancy, is not always precisely known. And, it's not even about the fact that a woman does not know about these risks.
Perhaps, nobody knows about any effect of the drug. Every organism reacts to any substance introduced into it in its own way. Therefore, all possible effects can not be described.
Therefore, women themselves, and doctors would like to be shielded from the appointment of any medication. But not always it turns out. With serious infections on the immune forces of a pregnant woman, there is no particular hope, and without adequate treatment it is easy to earn complications of infection.
So, that the appointment of antibiotics - is not so rare during pregnancy. I draw your attention that they can be appointed only by the attending physician after a preliminary examination of the patient. But women are still worried, looking for information on the use of certain antibacterial drugs. And this is correct, it is necessary to read, to be warned - means, armed.
Antibiotics: what do you need to know about them?
Antibiotics - a wide group of drugs, whose action is directed to the destruction of infectious agents. If you look at the word "antibiotics", then anti- means against, biologically active. That is, against the living.
Specifically, in this case, we mean bacteria, or microbes, that is, single-celled organisms that do not have a formal nucleus. Pay attention, neither against viruses, nor against the simplest nuclear organisms (protista), antibiotics are not effective.
There are antibiotics with bactericidal (lead to death) and bacteriostatic (prevent spread) action. There are antibiotics narrowly focused (on a specific group of bacteria) and a broad spectrum of action.
Basic principles of antibiotic therapy in pregnant women
The main principle of any prescribed treatment for doctors: "Do no harm!" Antibiotics are prescribed only for bacterial infections (pyelonephritis, otitis media, pneumonia, tonsillitis, burns, intestinal infections, sexually transmitted infections).
That is, with ARVI and influenza, the causative agents of which are viruses, their purpose is not advisable. Another thing is if against the background of a viral infection there are symptoms associated with the attachment of bacterial flora (bacterial complications).
Then, according to the indications for treatment, antibacterial drugs are added. This development is not uncommon, since the mucous membrane remains vulnerable and vulnerable after exposure to viruses.
And bacteria almost unhindered to join the "bridgehead" prepared by viruses. Antibacterial therapy during pregnancy is aimed at the destruction of pathogens, prevention of fetal infection and the development of purulent-inflammatory diseases in the postpartum period.
When prescribing antibiotics during pregnancy, several rules should be observed:
It is worthwhile to apply only those drugs in which safety of use in pregnant women is established and proved by clinical studies (safety categories FDA).
It is necessary to take into account the ways of excretion from the body of medicinal preparations. When prescribing antibiotics, you need, first of all, take into account the duration of pregnancy.
In the first three months of pregnancy, the fetus is most sensitive to any effects, as during this time all the organs and systems of the child (organogenesis) are laid.
Therefore, at this stage only strictly safe antibacterial agents are used, without toxic effects on the fetus. It is necessary to ensure the control of the condition of the pregnant woman and the child.
It is necessary to consider the therapeutic dose, duration of treatment, individual characteristics of the pregnant woman when choosing an antibiotic.
Only compliance with these conditions determines the rationality and effectiveness of antibiotic therapy.
Classification of antibiotics according to the degree of safety for pregnant women
When prescribing antibiotics, the doctor must take into account the probability of side effects of them for a pregnant woman, a child (both fetus and newborn).
Therefore, it is recommended to use the classification of medicinal substances used during pregnancy, in which three groups of drugs are distinguished:
Drugs that the placenta detains and does not allow penetration to the fetus. Therefore, they are not at all dangerous to the fetus;
Drugs that are able to penetrate the placental barrier, but are not capable of exerting toxic effects on the fetus;
Drugs that penetrate the placenta and accumulate in the fetal tissues (bones, teeth). That is, there is a high degree of danger of formation of congenital anomalies of the fetus.
To date, the classification of the American Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is widely used:
Category A - there is no risk of negative impact;
Category B ("best" - the best) - there is no evidence of a risk of negative influence;
Category C ("caution" - with caution) - the risk of negative influence is not excluded;
Category D ("dangerous" - dangerous) - negative impact is proved;
Category X - are prohibited during pregnancy and women planning a pregnancy.
Usage of antibiotics during pregnancy: possible or not?
We want to say right away that this article is of an informational nature. It can not be considered as an immediate solution to the use of certain drugs during pregnancy.
Any medicine is prescribed only by the doctor after the examination of the patient. And antibiotics especially, are appointed taking into account the localization of the infection (which organ is affected), the sensitivity of the flora to antibiotics, the severity of inflammation.
Having read the information in Internet sources and even in the annotation to the drug, you will not get a full idea of the drug. Since even from the list of approved medications for pregnant women there are those that can be taken throughout the pregnancy, and there are those that can be taken only at a certain period of pregnancy.
Approved antibiotics by FDA - Class B
Penicillin and its derivatives (aminopenicillins) are considered to be the drugs of choice in the treatment of pregnant women. These include ampicillin, amoxicillin, oxacillin and others.
The drugs are able to penetrate the placenta, but they do not have a negative effect on the fetus.
There are allergic reactions to this group of antibiotics.
Cephalosporin series of antibiotics (cefazolin, ceftriaxone, cephalexin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefepime, ceftazidime) can be used regardless of the timing of pregnancy. Cephalosporins have a broader spectrum of action on bacteria than the penicillin series.
Therefore, cephalosporins are considered second-line drugs (reserve drugs) for pregnant women and are prescribed in cases of intolerance to other medications. Through the placenta penetrate in reduced concentrations, a negative effect on the fetus is not.
Macrolides (erithromycine, josamycin and spiramycin) can also be used in the treatment of pregnant women. The placenta does not detain them, but they are not capable of adversely affecting the intrauterine development of the child.
Separately it is necessary to allocate preparations which can be used in treatment of the future mummies, but demands careful supervision of the doctor behind the patient.
Azithromycin (zitrolide, sumamed, etc.) can be used in the treatment of urogenital infections in pregnant women, caused by chlamydia, mycoplasmas. The toxic effect on the fetus is not confirmed.
Metronidazole (trichopolum, metrogil) is contraindicated in the first trimester because of the risk of forming congenital anomalies of the limbs, the child's brain. Its use is possible in the late stages of pregnancy, if it is impossible to use safer medicines for objective reasons.
The possibility of using Gentamicin in pregnant women is disputed, since if the therapeutic dose of the drug is not observed and with prolonged treatment, there is a high risk of hearing loss in the child. That is, it can be used in pregnancy, only if in a specific case it can not be replaced by other drugs. Perhaps because of the sensitivity of the bacteria to this antibiotic. Its appointment requires precise dosing and strict observation by the doctor.
To antibiotics banned in pregnancy include:
Antibiotics of the tetracycline series (doxycycline, tetracycline, morphocycline) are contraindicated because of pronounced embryotoxic action.
The liver, bone system, tooth enamel of the child are affected.
Sulfanilamidny series (biseptol, bactrim, trixazol, oribakt) is forbidden to prescribe during pregnancy due to the defeat of the fetal hematopoiesis.
Fluoroquinolone series (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ciprolet) is not prescribed to pregnant women, since they contribute to the formation of malformations of the osteal system in the fetus.
Antibiotics of the levomycetin group can not be used during pregnancy, as this group suppresses the work of the bone marrow. Nitrofuran series (furadonin, nitroxoline) is contraindicated, since it can cause the death of red cells of the fetus (erythrocytes).
Thus, these drugs cause hemolysis of the blood, when the destroyed red blood cell is unable to carry oxygen to the tissues of the child.
Thus, any medicine has the right to prescribe only a doctor.
All that depends on you is a clear compliance with the dose and duration of treatment. Many mistakenly believe that antibiotics are prescribed to pregnant women in a more sparing, lesser dose and a minimal course.
It's a delusion. Intentional reduction of the dose may lead to the fading of the infection for a while and to resume it with more force when the drug is withdrawn. Moreover, this is how the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is formed. When the antibiotic in a small concentration did not kill the microbe, but only killed it, it is likely that this group of microbes will have resistance to this drug the next time it is used.
After all, microbes have properties for everything to adapt. That is, the same antibiotic in the next application may not help a person even with an identical infection. So we get the situation that people, including pregnant women, have to be treated with increasingly strong antibiotics, including with more severe side effects. Your health depends only on you, or rather - on your actions.
If you are pregnant or plan a pregnancy in the foreseeable future, do not forget to discuss your actions on the use of antibiotics with your doctor.