Treatment of inflammation of the appendages (adnexitis) with the use of Metronidazole, Doxycycline and Azithromycin
Adnexitis (or inflammation of the appendages) is a common name for a group of infectious and inflammatory gynecological diseases. By frequency of occurrence, this process takes first place, affecting 65% of women, and every fifth patient is the cause of infertility.
To eliminate inflammatory processes in the female reproductive system, several types of antibiotics are actively used:
What is adnexitis?
Inflammatory processes in the pelvic organs in women often result in obstruction of the fallopian tubes, a violation of the functioning of the ovaries, and as a consequence - a violation of the formation of a full ovum. Adnexitis can be acute or chronic, be one- or two-sided.
The cause of the pathology of the appendages are:
- Surgical termination of pregnancy;
- Unprotected sex with a partner carrier of a sexually transmitted infection;
- Intrauterine device;
- Complications after removal of the appendix (subsequent inflammation, passing on the appendages);
- Overcooling, frequent stress;
- Reduced immunity due to transferred infectious diseases;
- Non-observance of intimate hygiene;
- Complicated delivery.
Treatment with antibiotics
When diagnosing adnexitis, women are prescribed antimicrobials, without waiting for the results of tests to identify the type of pathogen. They are used mainly in the acute phase of inflammation, but also prescribed for chronic diseases of the ovaries.
At the initial stage of treatment, broad-spectrum antibiotics are used that suppress the majority of pathogenic microorganisms that cause diseases of the genitourinary system. And only after clarifying the diagnosis, doctors adjust the therapy scheme, selecting the drugs with the most powerful effect.
The form of drugs used to treat inflammation of the appendages may be different. At the first stages of treatment, intravenous and intramuscular injections are mainly used. For this purpose, both ready-made solutions and lyophilizates are used, powders from which solutions for injections are prepared.
Then, depending on the normalization of the state of the female body, antibiotics are prescribed in the form of tablets, capsules, suppositories.
1. The most often used drugs from the tetracycline group - they block the ability of pathogenic bacteria to reproduce. Tetracyclides are effective against cocci, salmonella, mycoplasma, pertussis, spirochaete, etc.
2. Antibiotics-macrolides actively suppress staphylococci and streptococci. Although these drugs can cause resistance in some groups of bacteria, they generally eliminate the infection well.
3. Fluoroquinolone formulations have a depressing effect on most gram-positive, gram-negative and aerobic microorganisms. In addition, they actively influence the infection with resistance to the first-line quinolones. More new drugs - 3 and 4-th generation have an effect on a greater number of pathogens - pneumococci, mycobacteria, etc.
Treatment of adnexitis with Metronidazole
The drug contains the same active substance, which has antiprotozoal and antimicrobial effects. Metronidazole is intended for the treatment of pathologies caused by pathogens - Trichomonas, plasmodia, lamblia and anaerobes, including inflammation of the appendages. A characteristic feature of Metronidazole is that it acts primarily in the focus of infection.
The active substance binds to the DNA of a bacterium or protozoa, disrupts the formation of nucleic acids, which contributes to the death of the pathogen. The drug is recommended to be used separately from other medicines. During the treatment, alcohol-containing drugs or alcohol are not allowed.
The medicine is produced in the form of a solution for infusions, tablets, vaginal gel and suppositories.
When treating ovaries or inflammation of the appendages, it should be taken into account that Metronidazole is contraindicated in patients with pathologies of blood, liver, and CNS disorders. It can not be used to treat adnexitis in the first trimester of pregnancy and breastfeeding, as it easily overcomes the placental barrier and is secreted with milk. In subsequent periods of pregnancy, the results of therapy should be controlled by a physician.
Metronidazole dosage is calculated based on the individual characteristics of the female body - age, severity of inflammation of the appendages, concomitant diseases in the patient.
When appointing Metronidazole for the therapy of trichomonas vaginitis, the patient should abstain from sexual activity, it is necessary to conduct parallel treatment of the partner. For women, control tests are performed before and after menstruation.
Like all antiprotozoal drugs, Metronidazole has a strong toxic effect on the body, manifesting itself with side effects. Despite this, it is necessary to take them, as the harm from infection is much more palpable.
Doxycycline adnexitis treatment
The drug belongs to the most popular drugs used to treat inflammation of the ovaries, as it is more sparing, less side effects, easier to tolerate and faster to be eliminated from the body.
In addition, Doxycycline is also in demand and because it works well on microorganisms with drug resistance to tetracycline group drugs of previous generations. It has a longer therapeutic effect with smaller doses.
It also refers to tetracyclines, but contains a more modern active substance - doxycycline hiklat. Due to this, the antibiotic suppresses a larger number of pathogens: penetrates deep into the cell, suppresses the pathogens located inside. It stops the synthesis of proteins, disrupts internal connections, which contributes to the death of the microorganism.
Doxycycline is produced in the form of capsules, tablets, powder for the preparation of solutions.
The drug is not used for individual intolerance, liver failure, in the second half of pregnancy, lactation, since it has a 100-percent adsorption, is able to accumulate in tissues.
Azithromycin for adnexitis
The same active substance is a part of many other antibiotics. Azithromycin in medium concentration acts bacteriostatically on intracellular and extracellular Gram-positive pathogens - interrupts protein synthesis, preventing them from multiplying. In high dosage, the drug exhibits bactericidal properties.
The drug has no effect on pathogens with resistance to erythromycin. Antibiotic prescribe for the treatment of urethritis of gonorrhea and non-gonorrheal etiology, inflammation of the cervix.
Azithromycin is produced in capsules, tablets, powder for oral suspensions, lyophilizate for the preparation of infusion solutions.
It can not be used in women with hypersensitivity to the active substance, severe pathology of the kidneys and liver, during breastfeeding. The possibility of treating inflammation of the appendages and ovaries during pregnancy should be determined by the doctor, and in case of application it is necessary to monitor the condition of the female body for the timely prevention of ventricular arrhythmias.
For elimination of pelvic infections, intravenous injections of Azithromycin, prolonged-action suspensions are first used. Switching to tablets and capsules is carried out with the improvement of clinical indices and laboratory tests.
When treating adnexitis, it is important not to miss the time - you need to turn in time to the doctor and start using the prescribed antibiotics - Metronidazole, Azithromycin or Doxycycline. If they are impotent before the infection, which caused inflammation of the appendages and ovaries, surgery will be required. Therefore, in order not to bring the state to the necessity of cardinal measures, it is necessary to regularly visit the gynecologist and follow his instructions.