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The mechanism of therapeutic action of Doxycycline hyclate 100mg

Doxycycline is a member of the tetracycline antibiotics. The action of this group of antibiotics is based on inhibition of bacterial cells in the production of protein molecules. Doxycycline inhibits the growth and reproduction of pathogenic microbes (bacteriostatic effect) and in doses of 40 - 50 times higher than bacteriostatic able to drive the destruction of bacterial cells (bactericidal activity). Once inside the bacteria, doxycycline directly interacts with ribosomes (cellular organelles responsible for protein production). This antibiotic violates able to read the genetic material (RNA), which is required for the production of various types of proteins involved in all processes of bacterial cell activity.

Doxycycline hyclate 100mg has a broad spectrum of activity, allowing it to be effective with respect to such bacteria as a rickettsia, spirochete, staphylococcus, streptococcus, gonococcus, Shigella, Salmonella, Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, chlamydia, mycoplasma, agents of tetanus, gas gangrene, botulism, anthrax, typhus, brucellosis. Large concentrations of doxycycline to some extent act on protozoa (toxoplasmosis pathogens, leishmaniasis, giardiasis and other parasitic diseases).

It should be noted that to doxycycline resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus and some Bacteroides.

Doxycycline hyclate 100mg is well absorbed through the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. Ingestion practically pouring suction process, and therefore the antibiotic can be taken without regard to meals. Once in the bloodstream, doxycycline and widely distributed uniformly over all the body fluids and tissues. Further antibiotic binds to plasma proteins. Doxycycline is partially derived urine and partially with faeces.
If any pathologies appointed?
Since the doxycycline is effective against many pathogenic bacteria, it is often used as a basic antibiotic. It can appoint different diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract, for infections of the gastrointestinal tract, the urinary and reproductive system, as well as many other pathologies. Also worth noting is that you must start using an antibiotic only after determining the antibiogram (detection sensitivity of the infectious agent to different antibiotics).

How to take the Doxycycline monohydrate?

The most commonly prescribed Doxycycline hyclate 100mg for ingestion. This antibiotic is quite well absorbed in the lining of the stomach and intestines. Eating food does not affect the process of absorption of doxycycline, and therefore it can be used regardless of the meal. It should be noted that the use of Doxycycline monohydrate oral route (by mouth) considered the most preferred. Intravenously this medication is used only for the indication - the treatment of the most severe infections and administration of doxycycline orally if possible. It is worth noting that doxycycline may be used only adults and children after eight years.

This is due to the fact that the doxycycline can form very stable complexes with calcium is part of the bone, enamel and dentine (hard tissue) teeth. Also, this antibiotic is contraindicated in pregnant and nursing mothers. This antibiotic can pass through the placenta (penetrate the blood-barrier) and to influence the development of bone tissue and affects the liver (fatty).
Capsules or tablets (oral) in the first days of doxycycline treatment should be taken at a dose of 200 milligrams.

Subsequently, the daily dose is gradually reduced up to 100 milligrams per day of the antibiotic. Depending on the type of disease and its severity of maximum daily may be administered no more than 600 milligrams of doxycycline.

Children 8 to 18 are selected based on the dose of the current weight - 4 milligram per kilogram of body weight. Gradually reduce the dose of 2 mg / kg. Apply an antibiotic should be used twice a day.

The duration of treatment is chosen in each case individually.
Doxycycline monohydrate is administered intravenously at the same dosage that upon oral administration, that is from 100 - 200 mg for adults and 2 - 4 mg / kg for children from eight to eighteen. The duration of administration of doxycycline dose-dependent and, on average, takes 60 - 120 minutes at 60 administration - 80 drops per minute.

Typically, the Doxycycline monohydrate used intravenously for 3 to 5 days, and the good tolerability of doxycycline - up to a week. In the future, it is necessary to switch to oral administration of the antibiotic.
It is noteworthy that in patients with liver failure daily dosage should be revised because of the risk of antibiotic accumulation in the liver (may have a toxic effect on the liver cells).

Doxycycline hyclate 100mg: Possible side effects

Doxycycline at high doses can cause various side reactions. This antibiotic can damage the liver cells, and inhibit the normal intestinal microflora. Sometimes, due to individual sensitivity to the drug can develop drug allergy.

Effects of Doxycycline monohydrate on the body can cause the following side effects:

  • drug allergy;
  • disorders of the digestive tract;
  • disorders of the hematopoietic system.

Drug allergy

Doxycycline hyclate 100mg allergy is a reaction of the immune system that occurs on entry into the body of certain drugs (or their components). The first contact with this medicament form antibodies (specific molecules which are capable of binding to foreign substances and run processes to neutralize them), while the secondary penetration into the body run complex reaction (release of histamine and other mediators), which give rise to local or general clinical symptoms. Sometimes antibiotics can lead to the appearance of skin rash.

Typically, the site of skin rashes and itches badly scratched.

Also the introduction in the body may occur doxycycline side effects:

  • eosinophilia;
  • angioneurotic edema (angioedema);
  • photosensitivity.

Eosinophilia is a change in the overall composition of the blood in which there is an increase in the number of eosinophils. This condition usually occurs against various allergic reactions. Eosinophilic leukocytes, or eosinophils, play an important role in suppressing allergic reactions. These cells are capable of binding to histamine (one of the main mediators of allergy) and reduce the severity of an allergic process.

Angioedema, or angioedema, is one of the types of allergic reactions, in which there is swelling of the tissue in which the well-developed subcutaneous fat (lips, eyelids, cheeks and mucosa of the mouth, genitals).

This swelling of the tissue increases rapidly and lasts no more than 2 - 3 hours (in rare cases up to several days). It should be noted that not angioedema characteristic skin rash and itching. Sometimes, this allergic reaction can lead to swelling of the throat tissue, which manifests itself in the form of suffocation and may become life-threatening condition. In this case, the voice becomes a barking, there is shortness of breath (exhale first, and then on inspiration), the face reddens dramatically, and then fades.

In the future, due to the impact of large amounts of carbon dioxide that has accumulated in the body, developing coma (hypercapnic).

Photosensitivity is a condition of hypersensitivity (skin and mucous membranes) to UV rays. Once in the body, it has the ability to Doxycycline monohydrate is widely distributed in tissues and contribute to the emergence and photoallergy phototoxic reactions by type of inflammation. Solar ultraviolet rays (UV rays) penetrate deep into the tissue, are able to interact with the medication and to change its structure. Subsequently, the new substance is perceived by the body as an allergen, which in turn, leads to the development of allergic reactions to skin sites that were exposed to UV rays.

Doxycycline monohydrate: Violations of the digestive tract

Oral administration of large doses of Doxycycline monohydrate is often accompanied by symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. These symptoms occur due to the fact that large doses of antibiotic can irritate the mucous membranes of the digestive system. As doxycycline gradually absorbed into the wall of the gastrointestinal tract, these symptoms disappear.

Effects of doxycycline on the gastro-intestinal tract can lead to the following pathologies:

  • esophagitis;
  • glossitis;
  • dysbiosis.

Esophagitis is an inflammation of the lining of the esophagus. Manifested heartburn, pain in the mouth, difficulty swallowing act, and often combined with nausea and vomiting. Esophagitis is caused by excessive stimulation of mucosal high doses of Doxycycline hydrochloride, and may also appear in the background of other predisposing factors.

Glossitis is an inflammation of the tissues language. Glossitis When there is a change of color and structure of the language. For the disease characterized by symptoms such as edema, and an increase of language, excessive salivation, pain when chewing, as well as the difficulty in pronunciation of sounds.

Intestinal dysbacteriosis is characterized by suppression of normal intestinal microflora.

Dysbacteriosis may occur in patients receiving antibiotics. In this case there is a violation of the qualitative and quantitative composition of intestinal microflora as a result of its inhabit pathogens. intestinal dysbiosis may lead to bloating, diarrhea, constipation, decreased appetite. Severe form of intestinal dysbiosis may, in turn, lead to other pathological conditions - intestinal candidiasis (thrush). Candidiasis is a colonization of the intestine by microscopic fungi of the genus Candida. Candidiasis manifests intestinal diarrhea, flatulence (excessive flatulence) as well as the appearance in the feces of white flakes.

In some cases, the Doxycycline hyclate 100mg can have toxic effects on the liver cells. This can manifest increase in liver function tests (increased transaminases, alkaline phosphatase). Also can increase the value and bilirubin. That is why the antibiotic should not be used for the treatment of infectious processes in patients with hepatic failure.

Doxycycline hydrochloride: Violations of the hematopoietic system

Exposure to high doses of doxycycline may have a toxic effect on various blood cells (erythrocytes, platelets, leukocytes).

There are the following disorders of the hematopoietic system:

  • hemolytic anemia;
  • thrombocytopenia;
  • neutropenia.

Hemolytic anemia is a process intensive disintegration of red blood cells (RBCs). This is a rare pathological condition, which in some cases can occur under the influence of certain drugs (doxycycline).

Hemolytic anemia is manifested by jaundice and a high content of unbound bilirubin (a breakdown product of red blood cells) and serum iron (iron is released in the destruction of hemoglobin). However, the compensatory function of the body aimed at the normalization of the number of red blood cells, which manifests increased erythropoiesis (the process of hematopoiesis, aimed at the formation of red blood cells).

Thrombocytopenia - decrease in the number of blood platelets (thrombocytes). Platelets are needed to maintain normal blood clotting process. These cells are involved in the initial formation of a thrombus, and speeds up the process of blood coagulation (serve as catalyst). Thrombocytopenia is characterized by the appearance of bleeding gums, and frequent nosebleeds. bruising (bruises) are formed when minor skin and mucous mechanical damage. Later in the progression of thrombocytopenia bleeding can occur spontaneously in various organs.

It should be noted that the pathological state itself has almost no effect on the general state of health, but it is extremely misleading, as it can lead to serious consequences (haemorrhage in various vital organs).

Neutropenia (granulocytopenia) is characterized by a decrease in the total number of blood neutrophils (a type of white blood cell). Neutrophils perform a very important function as protect the human body from the effects of bacterial and fungal diseases. Neutropenia is manifested by fever, chills, headache, nausea and / or vomiting, and muscle pain. It should be noted that reducing the number of neutrophils significantly reduces the barrier properties of immunity.

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